Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009699 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009699:3178222 Clostridium botulinum F str. Langeland chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum F strain Langeland was identified in 1958 from home-prepared liver paste involved in an outbreak of foodborne botulism on the island of Langeland, in Denmark. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31782223178620399cytidine deaminaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31787043179402699diacylglycerol kinasePAP2 family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31794433179943501metalloproteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
317994031820272088hydrolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
318205031832101161stage IV sporulation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31832003183496297sporulation protein YqfCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31836103184056447GatBYqey domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3184099318427517730S ribosomal protein S21QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31844123184756345HIT family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
318481331861111299RNA modification proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3186111318686975916S ribosomal RNA methyltransferase RsmEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3186967318790593950S ribosomal protein L11 methyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
318821331893581146chaperone protein DnaJQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
318950131913721872molecular chaperone DnaKQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31914273192071645heat shock protein GrpEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
319209831931291032heat-inducible transcription repressorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
319333031944721143coproporphyrinogen III oxidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
319449931963071809GTP-binding protein LepAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31964483196843396hypothetical proteinBLASTP
319691331980041092stage II sporulation proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
31981783199152975germination proteaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3199362319962826730S ribosomal protein S20QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
319966332006941032DNA polymerase III subunit deltaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
320072332025101788ComECRec2 family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP