Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:3609881 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
360988136112391359DNA repair protein RadAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
361135936137942436negative regulator of genetic competence MecBClpCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
361379636148391044ATPguanido phosphotransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36148443615371528UVR domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36153943615858465transciptional repressor CtsRQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36162543616484231hypothetical proteinBLASTP
361683136189032073elongation factor GQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3619091361916575tRNA-AsnQuickGO ontology
3619193361926775tRNA-AsnQuickGO ontology
361927636193921175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3624349362442476tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
362451436246301175S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
362991936312951377UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanyl-D-glutamate synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
363212136335121392glycyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
363383236353461515lysyl-tRNA synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36353653635847483transcription elongation factor GreAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36359783636805828hypothetical proteinBLASTP
36368553637826972dihydrouridine synthaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36378363638612777pantothenate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
363876736404401674formate--tetrahydrofolate ligaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
364064336424481806ATP-dependent metalloprotease FtsHQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
36425303643075546hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
364305936444651407tRNAIle-lysidine synthetaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP