Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:1985404 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
198354519854071863ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinpermeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
198540419877312328ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinpermeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19881351988578444MarR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19888901989573684molybdopterin biosynthesis protein MoeBQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19895751989802228molybdopterin converting factor subunit 1QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
198995519917721818aldehyde ferredoxin oxidoreductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
199218119940761896aor transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19941261994566441MOSC domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19945681995047480molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein MoaCQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19950511996010960molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis protein AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
199606919979731905LysR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
199798519992111227molybdopterin biosynthesis enzyme MoeAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19992351999723489molybdopterin biosynthesis enzyme MogQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
19998182000510693tungstate ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20005072001178672tungstate ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20011872002038852tungstate ABC transporter tungstate-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
200225720035791323MATE efflux family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
20035792003776198hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20040172004661645hypothetical proteinBLASTP
20049832005654672ABC transporter ATP-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
200566920071321464ABC transporter permeaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP