Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009698 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009698:1337383 Clostridium botulinum A str. Hall chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A strain Hall was received at Fort Detrick from Harvard University in 1947. The strain is presumably one from Dr. Ivan Hall's collection, but the exact strain number has been lost. This strain produces high amounts of type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13373831337610228rubredoxinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
133764213391021461glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13391421340083942thioredoxin reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13408801341257378GrdX proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
134134813426341287glycine reductase complex component B alpha and beta subunitsQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13441191345060942thioredoxin-disulfide reductaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13450941345414321thioredoxin family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
134607113476091539glycine reductase complex component C subunit betaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
134762513487911167glycine reductase complex component C subunit alphaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
134921813498296123-methyladenine DNA glycosylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
134989513521202226restriction endonucleaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
135255613537671212methylthioribose kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
135390713549561050methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13549801355090111hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13551071355754648aldolaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13557981355938141hypothetical proteinBLASTP
13559281356722795DeoR family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
13570291357388360hypothetical proteinBLASTP