Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009697 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009697:256354 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
256354257079726polysaccharide deacetylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2574082587811374RNA polymerase factor sigma-54QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2590692601001032central glycolytic genes regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2601782611851008glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase type IQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2614822626781197phosphoglycerate kinaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
262740263486747triosephosphate isomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2635782651071530phosphoglyceromutaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2651632664581296phosphopyruvate hydrataseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
266681266914234preprotein translocase subunit SecGQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2671232693002178ribonuclease RQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
269709270467759stationary phase survival protein SurEQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
270724271194471SsrA-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
2713332724961164sodiumdicarboxylate symporter family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP