Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:38000 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

This island contains ribosomal proteins or RNA related elements and may indicate a False Positive Prediction!

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
38095397201626DNA polymerase III subunits gamma and tauQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
3978540126342hypothetical proteinBLASTP
4015940755597recombination protein RecRQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4078541075291hypothetical proteinBLASTP
4122541485261sigma-K factor processing regulatory protein BofAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4163642328693sugar fermentation stimulation protein AQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4238442872489hydrolase NUDIX familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4299043712723hypothetical proteinBLASTP
4384644634789Fe-S-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4519745901705thiF domain-containing proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
45960470931134major facilitator superfamily proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
4712248066945GNAT family acetyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
53199533241265S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
533225339776tRNA-LysQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
5362154217597uracil-DNA glycosylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
567265680176tRNA-AlaQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
59991601161265S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
601146018976tRNA-LysQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
6053261095564RNA polymerase factor sigma-70QuickGO ontologyBLASTP
61092625341443hypothetical proteinBLASTP
67909680341265S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
680336810876tRNA-PheQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
6865568936282hypothetical proteinBLASTP
74914750391265S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
750387511376tRNA-PheQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
7525475997744peptidil-prolyl isomeraseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
81249813741265S ribosomal RNAQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8173682479744NAD-dependent deacetylaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8266583573909LD-carboxypeptidaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
8360984550942transporter CorA metal ion transporter familyQuickGO ontologyBLASTP