Pre_GI Gene

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Host: NC_009495 NEIGHBOURS BLASTN Download Island sequence Download Island gene sequence(s)

NC_009495:128000 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 3502 chromosome, complete genome

Host Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: This strain is a well-studied Hall strain that produces type A toxin. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

StartEndLengthCDS descriptionQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
131661132659999LacI family transcriptional regulatorQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1328751369274053hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1370021380691068mannose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferaseQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1384051396941290hypothetical proteinBLASTP
139699140505807hypothetical proteinBLASTP
140525141271747hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1414961428781383radical SAM domain proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1430651443391275sugar-binding proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1444411455561116glycosyl transferase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1457221467321011spore coat proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
146747146941195hypothetical protein
146968147735768hypothetical proteinBLASTP
1477481487611014spore coat proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP
1491161502431128glycosyl transferase family proteinQuickGO ontologyBLASTP