Query: NC_018145:104303 Zymomonas mobilis subsp. mobilis ATCC 29191 chromosome, complete Lineage: Zymomonas mobilis; Zymomonas; Sphingomonadaceae; Sphingomonadales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: Isolation: Fermenting Elaeis palm sap; Temp: Mesophile. The natural habitat of this organism includes sugar-rich plant saps where the bacterium ferments sugar to ethanol. The high conversion of sugars to ethanol makes this organism useful in industrial production systems, particularly in production of bioethanol for fuel. A recombinant strain of this bacterium is utilized for the conversion of sugars, particularly xylose, which is not utilized by another common sugar-fermenting organism such as yeast, to ethanol. Since xylose is a common breakdown product of cellulose or a waste component of the agricultural industry, it is an attractive source for ethanol production. Zymomonas mobilis was chosen for this process as it is ethanol-tolerant (up to 120 grams of ethanol per litre) and productive (5-10% more ethanol than Saccharomyces). This bacterium ferments using the Enter-Doudoroff pathway, with the result that less carbon is used in cellular biomass production and more ends up as ethanol, another factor that favors this organism for ethanol production.
- Sequence; - BLASTP hit: hover for score (Low score = Light, High score = Dark); - hypothetical protein; - cds: hover for description
General Information: This strain is an isolate from an epidemic in China in the 1950s. A leading cause of dysentery. This genus is named for the Japanese scientist (Shiga) who first discovered these organisms in the 1890s. They are closely related to the Escherichia group, and may be considered the same species. These organisms are human-specific pathogens that are transmitted via contaminated food and water and are the leading causes of endemic bacillary dysentery, causing over 160 million cases of infection and 1 million deaths yearly worldwide. The bacteria infect the epithelial lining of the colon, causing acute inflammation by entering the host cell cytoplasm and spreading intercellularly. This extremely virulent organisms that can cause an active infection after a very low exposure. Both the type III secretion system, which delivers effector molecules into the host cell, and some of the translocated effectors such as the invasion plasmid antigens (Ipas), are encoded on the plasmid. The bacterium produces a surface protein that localizes to one pole of the cell (IcsA) which binds to and promotes actin polymerization, resulting in movement of the bacterium through the cell cytoplasm, and eventually to neighboring cells, which results in inflammatory destruction of the mucosal lining. This organism is the leading cause of dysentery in industrialized countries. The disease is usually less severe than other types of Shigella, causing mild diarrhea and dehydration.