Query: NC_017249:7341428 Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 6, complete genome Lineage: Bradyrhizobium japonicum; Bradyrhizobium; Bradyrhizobiaceae; Rhizobiales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: This nitrogen-fixing bacterium develops a symbiotic relationship with the soybean plant Glycine max and is related to other N2-fixing Rhizobia which are symbiotic with legumes. The bacterium establishes itself in a root nodule which provides a protective environment for the organism to live while the bacterium provides the plant cell with nitrogen. This is an agriculturally important symbiotic relationship as it obviates the need for expensive and environmentally damaging fertilizer.Genes that code for proteins involved in root nodulation are carried on the chromosome. The production of the nodulation signal, lipochitin, is directed by genes which are turned on in the presence of plant flavonoid compounds. The bacteria are endocytosed into a cortical cell, and are enclosed within a membrane bound organelle termed the symbiosome.
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General Information: Endosymbiont. Obligate intracellular bacterium infects around 20% of all insect species. Naturally infects Drosophila simulans and induces almost complete cytoplasmic incompatibility in its host. Wolbachia sp. subsp. Drosophila simulans (strain wRi) is an intracellular proteobacterium that infect insects as well as isopods, spiders, scorpions, mites, and filarial nematodes. It is maternally inherited and induces reproductive alterations of insect populations by male killing, feminization, parthenogenesis, or cytoplasmic incompatibility. In insect populations, Wolbachia sp. induce reproductive manipulations to enhance their own spreading. The most frequently observed reproductive abnormality is cytoplasmic incompatibility, where uninfected females are unable to produce offspring with infected males, whereas infected females can produce offspring with both infected and uninfected males, thus creating a reproductive advantage for infected females. Other spectacular effects of Wolbachia sp. infections are male embryo killing, feminization, and parthenogenesis induction.