Query: NC_016516:1203000 Propionibacterium acnes TypeIA2 P.acn33 chromosome, complete Lineage: Propionibacterium acnes; Propionibacterium; Propionibacteriaceae; Actinomycetales; Actinobacteria; Bacteria General Information: This bacterium is the most common gram-positive, non-spore forming, anaerobic rod encountered in clinical specimens. The causative agent of acne, it typically grows as an obligate anaerobe. Some strains are aerotolerant, but still show better growth as an anaerobe. It has the ability to produce propionic acid, as its name suggests. It also has the ability to produce catalase along with indole, nitrate, or both indole and nitrate. Propionibacterium resembles Corynebacterium in morphology and arrangement, but is non-toxigenic. It is a common resident of the pilosebaceous (hair follicle) glands of the human skin. The bacteria release lipases to digest a surplus of the skin oil, sebum, that has been produced. The combination of digestive products (fatty acids) and bacterial antigens stimulates an intense local inflammation that bursts the hair follicle. Since acne is caused in part from an infection, it can be suppressed with topical and oral antibiotics such as clindamycin, erythromycin, or tetracycline. Some other forms of therapy include chemicals that enhance skin removal or slow the production of sebum.
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General Information: Produces thermostable enzymes. Members of this genus are distinguished from most actinomycetes by their ability to form clustered spores that attach directly to the substrate mycelia, and not to the aerial mycelia. Moreover, these bacteria do not produce aerial mycelia at all. M. fusca is the most thermophilic, with some growth detectable at up to 75 degrees C. The natural habitat of Thermobifida is self-heated organic materials, like rotting hay, compost, manure or urban waste piles, etc., which they share with other thermophilic and thermotolerant actinomycetes. Biological and physiological features of these bacteria are accordingly adapted to the conditions of such environments, namely the high temperatures and the presence of abundant plant materials and other bio-polymer substrates of natural origin. Actinomycetes are well suited for this environment because they generally grow as branching hyphae and are well adapted to penetration and degradation of insoluble substrates such as lignocellulose. Spores of Thermobifida are known to cause allergic respiratory diseases called mushroom worker disease and farmer's lung, which develop in agricultural workers who by the nature of their work happen to breathe in significant amounts of actinomycete spores from hay, compost, etc. Some isolates of this organism are able to mineralize plastic disposals and other anthropogenic xenobiotics. Thermobifidaare of particular interest because they produce multiple thermostable enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulose.