Query: NC_015707:1911431 Thermotoga thermarum DSM 5069 chromosome, complete genome Lineage: Thermotoga thermarum; Thermotoga; Thermotogaceae; Thermotogales; Thermotogae; Bacteria General Information: Country: Djibouti; Isolation: Continental solfataric spring; Africa; Temp: Hyperthermophile; Temp: 80C. This organism, a member of the Thermotogales, has the characteristic morphology of one or more cells contained in a sheath-like envelope which extends beyond the cell wall. Preliminary sequencing of Thermotogales genomes has identified extensive horizontal gene transfer between these organisms and the Archaea. Thermotoga thermarum does not grow at high salt concentrations (>0.6% NaCL). This organism also produces heat stable enzymes such as endoxylanase, beta xylosidase and alpha arabinofuranosidase which may have commercial uses.
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General Information: This organism was isolated from the Dead Sea and will provide information on the proteins necessary for adaptation to a high salt environment. Halophilic archaeon. Halobacterial species are obligately halophilic microorganisms that have adapted to optimal growth under conditions of extremely high salinity 10 times that of sea water. They contain a correspondingly high concentration of salts internally and exhibit a variety of unusual and unique molecular characteristics. Since their discovery, extreme halophiles have been studied extensively by chemists, biochemists, microbiologists, and molecular biologists to define both molecular diversity and universal features of life. A notable list of early research milestones on halophiles includes the discovery of a cell envelope composed of an S-layer glycoprotein, archaeol ether lipids and purple membrane, and metabolic and biosynthetic processes operating at saturating salinities. These early discoveries established the value of investigations directed at extremophiles and set the stage for pioneering phylogenetic studies leading to the three-domain view of life and classification of Halobacterium as a member of the archaeal domain. This organism is also know as "Halobacterium of the Dead Sea". Growth occurs in 1.7-5.1 M NaCl with optimum salt concentration of 3.4-3.9 M NaCl. The cytosol of this organism is a supersaturated salt solution in which proteins are soluble and active. This halophile is chemoorganotrophic and able to use a wide variety of compounds as sole carbon and energy sources.