Query: NC_014228:3591758 Xenorhabdus nematophila ATCC 19061, complete genome Lineage: Xenorhabdus nematophila; Xenorhabdus; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: This genus is a group of insect pathogens which live in a mutualistic relationship with the soil nematode family, Steinernematidae. Free-living, juvenile Steinernema spp. enter insect larvae through the digestive tract. They penetrate the larvae body cavity and release Xenorhabdus spp. into the hemolymph (blood). The bacteria multiply rapidly, killing the larvae, and providing suitable nutrient conditions for the growth and reproduction of the Steinernema spp. The nematode matures and reproduces. The new juveniles reassociate with Xenorhabdus spp. and are released into the soil. Unlike Xenorhabdus bovienii, which is found in different Steinernema spp., Xenorhabdus nematophila is associated specifically with Steinernema carpocapsae and can be used as a model for studying host specificity.
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General Information: This organism was named for its discoverer, Theodore Escherich, and is one of the premier model organisms used in the study of bacterial genetics, physiology, and biochemistry. This enteric organism is typically present in the lower intestine of humans, where it is the dominant facultative anaerobe present, but it is only one minor constituent of the complete intestinal microflora. E. coli, is capable of causing various diseases in its host, especially when they acquire virulence traits. E. coli can cause urinary tract infections, neonatal meningitis, and many different intestinal diseases, usually by attaching to the host cell and introducing toxins that disrupt normal cellular processes.