Query: NC_014228:3391500 Xenorhabdus nematophila ATCC 19061, complete genome Lineage: Xenorhabdus nematophila; Xenorhabdus; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: This genus is a group of insect pathogens which live in a mutualistic relationship with the soil nematode family, Steinernematidae. Free-living, juvenile Steinernema spp. enter insect larvae through the digestive tract. They penetrate the larvae body cavity and release Xenorhabdus spp. into the hemolymph (blood). The bacteria multiply rapidly, killing the larvae, and providing suitable nutrient conditions for the growth and reproduction of the Steinernema spp. The nematode matures and reproduces. The new juveniles reassociate with Xenorhabdus spp. and are released into the soil. Unlike Xenorhabdus bovienii, which is found in different Steinernema spp., Xenorhabdus nematophila is associated specifically with Steinernema carpocapsae and can be used as a model for studying host specificity.
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General Information: This strain was isolated from an infected goat and is pathogenic in humans. Causes brucellosis and undulant fever. They are highly infectious, and can be spread through contact with infected animal products or through the air, making them a potential bioterrorism agent. Once the organism has entered the body, it can become intracellular, and enter the blood and lymphatic regions, multiplying inside phagocytes before eventually causing bacteremia (spread of bacteria through the blood). Virulence may depend on a type IV secretion system which may promote intracellular growth by secreting important effector molecules. This organism is a facultative intracellular bacteria that causes abortion in wild and domestic animals, usually goats or sheep, and undulant fever in humans. Brucellosis is a major health problem in the Mediterranean region and parts of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, where it causes severe economic losses. The disease is transmitted to humans by nonpasteurized milk and milk products or by direct contact with infected animals or carcasses.