Query: NC_014029:331919 Yersinia pestis Z176003 chromosome, complete genome Lineage: Yersinia pestis; Yersinia; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: It was isolated from a dead marmot in Tibet Autonomous Region, China. Gram-negative straight rods, sometimes approaching a spherical shape. Y.pestis is always nonmotile. It is the causative agent of plague which is primarily a disease of wild rodents. Y.pestis is transmitted among wild rodents by fleas, in which the bacteria multiply and block the esophagus and the pharynx. The fleas regurgitate the bacteria when they take their next blood meal. Bacteria are transmitted subcutaneously to humans by the bite of infected fleas, but also by air, especially during pandemics of disease. Infective flea bites produce the typical bubonic form of plague in humans.
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General Information: This genus is a group of insect pathogens which live in a mutualistic relationship with the soil nematode family, Steinernematidae. Free-living, juvenile Steinernema spp. enter insect larvae through the digestive tract. They penetrate the larvae body cavity and release Xenorhabdus spp. into the hemolymph (blood). The bacteria multiply rapidly, killing the larvae, and providing suitable nutrient conditions for the growth and reproduction of the Steinernema spp. The nematode matures and reproduces. The new juveniles reassociate with Xenorhabdus spp. and are released into the soil. Unlike Xenorhabdus bovienii, which is found in different Steinernema spp., Xenorhabdus nematophila is associated specifically with Steinernema carpocapsae and can be used as a model for studying host specificity.