Query: NC_013093:1 Actinosynnema mirum DSM 43827, complete genome Lineage: Actinosynnema mirum; Actinosynnema; Pseudonocardiaceae; Actinomycetales; Actinobacteria; Bacteria General Information: Isolation: Blade of grass from Raritan River NJ; Country: USA; Temp: Mesophile; Temp: 10-30C; Habitat: Soil. This bacterium produces the antibiotic nocardicin A. Soil dwelling, nonmotile aerobe it has fine hyphae which form aerial and substrate mycelia. Motile spores are borne on synnemata, compact groups of erect hyphae. It produces nocardicin antibiotics and is able to inhibit growth of several Gram-positive bacteria as well as some filamentous fungi and yeasts.
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General Information: This strain was isolated from a human skin biopsy in Brazil, and passaged in nude mice and armadillos. The bacterium is a close relative of M. tuberculosis. However, compared to the latter, the genome of M. leprae is smaller due to reductive genome evolution, with many important metabolic activities including siderophore production, part of the oxidative chain, most of the microaerophilic and anaerobic respiratory chains, and numerous catabolic systems and their regulatory circuits eliminated due to extensive recombination events between dispersed repetitive sequences. It is evident that this species has undergone massive genome reduction over time as a result of its parasitic nature, discarding more than half its genes and rendering it the most striking example of genome reduction in a microbial pathogen.