Query: NC_012846:2004711 Bartonella grahamii as4aup, complete genome Lineage: Bartonella grahamii; Bartonella; Bartonellaceae; Rhizobiales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: Bartonella grahamii (strain as4aup) is Gram-negative bacterium isolated from a wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus) in central Sweden. Bartonella are human and animal pathogens which infect erythrocytes and can cause angiogenic lesions. These organisms cause diseases in humans such as Oroya fever, Trench fever, endocarditis, and Cat Scratch disease. Transmission of this organism is via the bite of a blood-sucking arthropod. Bartonella grahamii can be isolated from the blood of rodents and is found world wide. Fleas may be the transmission vector for Bartonella grahamii to other rodents. Human disease appears to be rare and associated with an immunocompromised state.
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General Information: Bartonella henselae str. Houston-1 (ATCC 49882) was isolated from human blood in Houston Texas. Causative agent of cat scratch fever. This group of alpha proteobacteria are unique among pathogens in that they cause angiogenic lesions. This organism was identified as the causative agent of cat scratch fever, a disease found commonly in children or in immunocompromised adults. The proliferation of the vascular endothelium (bacillary angiomatosis) is characterisitic of Bartonella infection and results in multiplication of the bacterium's host cells. Infected macrophages are stimulated to release vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin 1 beta, both of which promote angiogenesis. Endothelial cells are also stimulated to grow and divide by direct contact with bacterial cells. In addition, programmed cell death (apoptosis) of endothelial cells is inhibited, combatting a common mechanism eukaryotic cells use to deal with bacterial infection. Other pathogenicity factors include pili and outer membrane adhesins for attachment to host cells.