Query: NC_012207:477500 Mycobacterium bovis BCG str. Tokyo 172, complete genome Lineage: Mycobacterium bovis; Mycobacterium; Mycobacteriaceae; Actinomycetales; Actinobacteria; Bacteria General Information: Used for the production of BCG vaccine in Japan. Causative agent of classic bovine tuberculosis. This bacterium is the causative agent of classic bovine tuberculosis, but it can also cause the disease in humans, especially if contaminated milk is consumed without prior pasteurization. The Mycobacterium bovis complex is a diverse group of species, serovars and morphotypes that cause tuberculosis-like diseases in animals and humans. Pasteurization of milk is a major preventitive factor in transmission of bovine tuberculosis to humans. However, spreading the disease through milk and dairy products is still a concern in underdeveloped countries where pasteurization is not practiced. The pathology in cows is similar to the pathology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in humans, with pulmonary TB leading to chronic debilitation, coughing, and further systemic spread to other organs. In addition, 1 to 2% of infected cows develop mycobacterial mastitis that results in shedding of the bacteria into the milk.
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General Information: This genus comprises a number of Gram-positive, acid-fast, rod-shaped aerobic bacteria and is the only member of the family Mycobacteriaceae within the order Actinomycetales. Like other closely related Actinomycetales, such as Nocardia and Corynebacterium, mycobacteria have unusually high genomic DNA GC content and are capable of producing mycolic acids as major components of their cell wall. Mycobacterium marinum is commonly found in fresh and salt water in North America. This bacterium, a close relative of M. tuberculosis, causes a tuberculosis-like disease in frogs, fish and other cold-blooded animals, and a peripheral granulomatous disease in humans. Human infections can be persistent and may lead to systemic infection and arthritis. M. marinum is photochromogenic, i.e. it produces bright yellow pigmentation (mainly beta-carotene) upon exposure to visible light. Infection is followed by a 2-8 week incubation period resulting in suppuration (pus) and organized ulcerating granulomas (tumorous lesions), predominantly localized in lymphatic and tendon sheaths, and cooler body tissues in the extremities.