Query: NC_011745:3197584 Escherichia coli ED1a chromosome, complete genome Lineage: Escherichia coli; Escherichia; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: Isolated in the 2000s from the faeces of a healthy man in France. This organism was named for its discoverer, Theodore Escherich, and is one of the premier model organisms used in the study of bacterial genetics, physiology, and biochemistry. This enteric organism is typically present in the lower intestine of humans, where it is the dominant facultative anaerobe present, but it is only one minor constituent of the complete intestinal microflora. E. coli, is capable of causing various diseases in its host, especially when they acquire virulence traits. E. coli can cause urinary tract infections, neonatal meningitis, and many different intestinal diseases, usually by attaching to the host cell and introducing toxins that disrupt normal cellular processes.
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General Information: This serogroup I strain is endemic in France. Causes Legionnaire's disease. This organism is a non-marine bacterium usually found growing inside other organisms such as protozoans in aquatic environments. They can also be found in soil, freshwater, and in biofilms. The first outbreak of Legionnaire's disease occurred in 1976 at an American Legion convention and the resulting pneumonia-like disease resulted in 34 deaths. The cause of the disease was traced to Legionella bacteria. Once the bacteria are brought into the lungs they make contact with alveolar macrophages and are internalized where they can cause severe respiratory distress. Internalization occurs through specialized vacuoles (replicative phagosomes) that allow the bacteria to grow and replicate prior to escape from the macrophage. Formation of the replicative phagosome, which requires reprogramming of the normal phagosome maturation pathway, requires a type IV secretion system called the Dot/Icm system. This type IV system is closely related to the conjugative system of plasmid ColIb-P9, and is involved in the secretion of numerous protein components that aid in formation of the replicative phagosome. Other virulence determinants include a set of multidrug transporters and other efflux pumps for toxic compounds that may allow the organism to persist in its habitat, a set of LPS phase variable genes that enhance immune evasion, and a type II secretion system for transport of hydrolases.