Query: NC_010125:1651687 Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAl 5, complete genome Lineage: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus; Gluconacetobacter; Acetobacteraceae; Rhodospirillales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain PAL5 (ATCC 49037) was isolated from sugarcane roots in Brazil and will be used for comparative analysis. Nitrogen-fixing plant symbiont. This acid-tolerant organism is endophytic and colonizes internal plant tissues, establishing a symbiotic relationship with its host. This bacterium has been found in sugarcane, coffee, rice, tea, and other plants. The nitrogen-fixation systems of the bacterium provide the plant with essential nitrogenous compounds while the plant provides a protected environment for the bacterium to grow in. Nitrogen-fixation is important for sugarcane production, and this organism can fix nitrogen even in the presence of nitrate.
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General Information: This strain was isolated at Penn State University, USA and is used commercially for malolactic fermentation in wines. Lactic acid bacterium used in wine production. Oenococcus oeni is another member of the lactic acid bacteria and it occurs naturally in marshes and similar environments. It carries out malolactic conversion during secondary fermentation in wine production which is the conversion of malic acid to lactic acid with a concomitant rise in pH, making the wine microbiologically stable and enhancing the sensory properties of the wine (aroma, flavor, and texture). The organism's high tolerance to sulfite and ethanol mean that it will be the predominant organism in the wine at the end of fermentation where it cleans up the remaining sugars and converts the bitter-tasting malic acid.