Query: NC_010102:283364 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi B str. SPB7, Lineage: Salmonella enterica; Salmonella; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: This strain (SGSC 4150; ATCC BAA-1250) was isolated from a stool sample of an infected woman in Penang, Malaysia, May 16, 2002. This strain is susceptible to antibiotics, and was classified as serovar Paratyphi B because it was unable to metabolize D-tartrate. Causes enteric infections. This group of Enterobactericiae have pathogenic characteristics and are one of the most common causes of enteric infections (food poisoning) worldwide. They were named after the scientist Dr. Daniel Salmon who isolated the first organism, Salmonella choleraesuis, from the intestine of a pig. The presence of several pathogenicity islands (PAIs) that encode various virulence factors allows Salmonella spp. to colonize and infect host organisms. There are two important PAIs, Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) that encode two different type III secretion systems for the delivery of effector molecules into the host cell that result in internalization of the bacteria which then leads to systemic spread.
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General Information: This strain is one of the first vancomycin-resistant strains isolated. This isolate came from a blood culture derived from a chronically-infected patient in 1987 from Barnes Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri, USA. This strain was found to lack the cytolysin gene and a surface adhesin, Esp, that contributes to urinary tract infections. Mobile genetic elements make up one quarter of the genome. This genera consists of organisms typically found in the intestines of mammals, although through fecal contamination they can appear in sewage, soil, and water. They cause a number of infections that are becoming increasingly a problem due to the number of antibiotic resistance mechanisms these organisms have picked up. Both Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium cause similar diseases in humans, and are mainly distinguished by their metabolic capabilities. This opportunistic pathogen can cause urinary tract infections, bacteremia (bacteria in the blood), and infective endocarditis (inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart), similar to infections caused by Enterococcus faecium. Hospital-acquired infections from this organism are on the rise due to the emergence of antiobiotic resistance strains. Enterococcus faecalis produces a cytolysin toxin that is encoded on various mobile genetic elements, pathogenicity islands, and conjugative plasmids. The cytolysin aids in pathogenesis, possibly by causing destruction of cells such as erythrocytes, which allows access to new nutrients for the organism.