Query: NC_009922:2556033 Alkaliphilus oremlandii OhILAs, complete genome Lineage: Alkaliphilus oremlandii; Alkaliphilus; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria General Information: Arsenate-reducing bacterium. Alkaliphilus oremlandii was isolated from Ohio River sediment, USA. This organism can reduce arsenate to arsenite, making it a potential bioremediation agent. It is a versatile strict anaerobic, spore-forming, low G+C gram positive bacterium that can ferment glycerol, fructose, and lactate, as well as respire arsenate and thiosulfate.
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General Information: This strain was isolated from a case of infant botulism in Kyoto, Japan in 1978. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.