Query: NC_009714:727679 Campylobacter hominis ATCC BAA-381, complete genome Lineage: Campylobacter hominis; Campylobacter; Campylobacteraceae; Campylobacterales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: Campylobacter hominis ATCC BAA-381 was isolated from the feces of a healthy human. Members of this genus are one of the most common causes of bacterial gastroenteritis (campylobacteriosis). Usually the symptoms are abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, and cramps, but the illness can sometimes be fatal and some infected individuals develop a syndrome (Guillain-Barre) in which the nerves connecting the spinal cord to the brain are damaged. C. jejuni is the main cause of campylobacteriosis, but other species can also cause infection, including C. coli, C. upsaliensis, and C. concisus. Campylobacter hominis. This is the only known species of Campylobacter that is not pathogenic to humans.
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General Information: This strain was isolated from a case of infant botulism in Kyoto, Japan in 1978. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.