Query: NC_009617:163466 Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 chromosome, complete genome Lineage: Clostridium beijerinckii; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria General Information: Solvent-producing bacterium. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Some species are capable of producing organic solvents (acetone, ethanol, etc,), molecular hydrogen and other useful compounds. There are also species that can fix molecular nitrogen and thus are important participants in biological turnaround of nitrogen compounds in nature. This species is used to produce industrial solvents.
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General Information: Causative agent of contagious pleuropneumonia in livestock. This genus belongs to the class Mollicutes (phylum Tenericutes), a taxonomic group of small (0.3-0.8 micron diameter) monoderm bacteria characterized by the lack of cell walls, reduced genome sizes, and obligate parasitic lifestyles (Krieg et al., 2010). Over 120 obligate parasitic species found in a wide spectrum of hosts, including humans, animals, insects and plants. Infection typically proceeds through the attachment of bacteria to host cells via assorted adhesins or, in some species, through highly specialized surface protein appendages. In some cases, subsequent invasion of host cells results in a prolonged intracellular persistence that may cause lethality. These adaptive strategies are involved in host cell attachment and invasion, as well as immune evasion. Although mycoplasmas are dependent on their association with eukaryotic host tissue in nature, most can be cultivated axenically if their fastidious growth requirements are met. Nearly all mycoplasmas derive energy only from glycolytic pathways, whereas some can hydrolyze arginine. Assigned to the genus Mycoplasma by historic taxonomic precedent, organism in the Mycoplasma mycoides phylogenetic cluster are in fact more closely related to other genera in the Mollicutes (Krieg et al., 2010).