Query: NC_009076:106807 Burkholderia pseudomallei 1106a chromosome I, complete sequence Lineage: Burkholderia pseudomallei; Burkholderia; Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderiales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: Isolated from liver abscess from a 23-year old female patient in Thailand in 1993. This species is an opportunistic pathogen and can cause pneumonia, bacteremia, and melioidosis. It is normally found in terrestrial environments and has been recovered from rice paddies and moist tropical soil. It is endemic in Asia and Australia, but can be found in other parts of the world. The organism can exist intracellularly and can spread through the bloodstream (bacteremia).
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General Information: This organism was first isolated from the soil in Vineland, New Jersey, although it is found worldwide. It is a large obligate aerobe that has one of the highest respiratory rates of any organism. Azotobacter vinelandii also produces a number of unusual nitrogenases which allow it to fix atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia, a compound it can then use as a nitrogen source. It protects the oxygen-sensitive nitrogenase enzymes through its high respiratory rate, which sequesters the nitrogenase complexes in an anoxic environment. This organism has a number of unusual characteristics. Under extreme environmental conditions, the cell will produce a cyst that is resistant to dessication and is surrounded by two capsular polysaccharide layers. This organism produces two industrially important polysaccharides, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and alginate. PHB is a thermoplastic biopolymer, and alginate is used in the food industry. Alginate is also used by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to infect the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients.