Query: NC_008782:1566172 Acidovorax sp. JS42, complete genome Lineage: Acidovorax; Acidovorax; Comamonadaceae; Burkholderiales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: Acidovorax sp. JS42, formerly Pseudomonas sp. JS42, was isolated from nitrobenzene-contaminated sediment and is capable of using 2-nitrotolulene as a sole carbon and energy source. 2-nitrotolulene, a nitroaromatic compound, is used in the manufacture of dyes, pigments and explosives. Nitroaromatic compounds, which contain an aromatic ring with one or more nitro groups attached, are a significant contaminant in industrial soils. Acidovorax sp. JS42 degrades 2-nitrotolulene by first removing the nitro moiety producing 3-methylcatechol. The enzyme involved in this process, 2-nitrotolulene dioxygenase, has been purified and characterized.
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General Information: This organism was first isolated from the soil in Vineland, New Jersey, although it is found worldwide. It is a large obligate aerobe that has one of the highest respiratory rates of any organism. Azotobacter vinelandii also produces a number of unusual nitrogenases which allow it to fix atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia, a compound it can then use as a nitrogen source. It protects the oxygen-sensitive nitrogenase enzymes through its high respiratory rate, which sequesters the nitrogenase complexes in an anoxic environment. This organism has a number of unusual characteristics. Under extreme environmental conditions, the cell will produce a cyst that is resistant to dessication and is surrounded by two capsular polysaccharide layers. This organism produces two industrially important polysaccharides, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and alginate. PHB is a thermoplastic biopolymer, and alginate is used in the food industry. Alginate is also used by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to infect the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients.