Query: NC_008533:1380406 Streptococcus pneumoniae D39, complete genome Lineage: Streptococcus pneumoniae; Streptococcus; Streptococcaceae; Lactobacillales; Firmicutes; Bacteria General Information: This strain was used by Avery, Macleod, and McCarty in their landmark study on the role of DNA as the agent of transformation. Can cause respiratory disease. Streptococci are Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore forming, catalase-negative cocci that occur in pairs or chains. Members of this genus vary widely in pathogenic potential. Most streptococci are facultative anaerobes, and some are obligate anaerobes. Serologic grouping is based on antigenic differences in cell wall carbohydrates, in cell wall pili-associated protein, and in the polysaccharide capsule in group B streptococci. This organism is a member of the normal human nasopharyngeal flora. This organism is also the most common cause of sinusitis, acute bacterial otitis media, and conjunctivitis beyond early childhood. S. pneumoniae is also known to cause pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia.
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General Information: This genera consists of organisms typically found in the intestines of mammals, although through fecal contamination they can appear in sewage, soil, and water. They cause a number of infections that are becoming increasingly a problem due to the number of antibiotic resistance mechanisms these organisms have picked up. Both Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium cause similar diseases in humans, and are mainly distinguished by their metabolic capabilities. This opportunistic pathogen can cause urinary tract infections, bacteremia (bacteria in the blood), and infective endocarditis (inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart), similar to infections caused by Enterococcus faecium and faecalis. Hospital-acquired infections from this organism are on the rise due to the emergence of antiobiotic resistance strains.