Query: NC_008533:1380406 Streptococcus pneumoniae D39, complete genome Lineage: Streptococcus pneumoniae; Streptococcus; Streptococcaceae; Lactobacillales; Firmicutes; Bacteria General Information: This strain was used by Avery, Macleod, and McCarty in their landmark study on the role of DNA as the agent of transformation. Can cause respiratory disease. Streptococci are Gram-positive, non-motile, non-spore forming, catalase-negative cocci that occur in pairs or chains. Members of this genus vary widely in pathogenic potential. Most streptococci are facultative anaerobes, and some are obligate anaerobes. Serologic grouping is based on antigenic differences in cell wall carbohydrates, in cell wall pili-associated protein, and in the polysaccharide capsule in group B streptococci. This organism is a member of the normal human nasopharyngeal flora. This organism is also the most common cause of sinusitis, acute bacterial otitis media, and conjunctivitis beyond early childhood. S. pneumoniae is also known to cause pneumonia, meningitis, and bacteremia.
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General Information: This strain has numerous pathogenicity islands and genes as compared to the related non-pathogenic organism Listeria innocua. This organism, which causes listeriosis, is one of the leading causes of death from food-borne pathogens especially in pregnant women, newborns, the elderly, and immunocompromised individuals. It is found in environments such as decaying vegetable matter, sewage, water, and soil, and it can survive extremes of both temperatures (1-45 degrees C) and salt concentration marking it as an extremely dangerous food-born pathogen, especially on food that is not reheated. This organism is enteroinvasive, and utilizes an actin-based motility system by using a surface protein, ActA, that promotes actin polymerization, to spread intercellularly using the polymerized cytoskeletal protein as a "motor". There are 13 serovars associated with Listeria monocytogenes, and the serovar 4b strains are more commonly associated with invasive disease.