Query: NC_007984:221030 Baumannia cicadellinicola str. Hc (Homalodisca coagulata), complete Lineage: Baumannia cicadellinicola; Baumannia; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: This newly discovered organism is an obligate endosymbiont of the leafhopper insect Homalodisca coagulata (Say), also known as the Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter, which feeds on the xylem of plants. The insect causes devastation to grape crops and may affect other grasses as it is a vector for the bacterial pathogen, Xylella fastidiosa, which can cause disease in grapevines. Leafhopper insect endosymbiont. Baumannia cicadellinicola is found within bacteriomes, specialized organs in sharpshooter leafhoppers (Cicadellinae), and is transmitted vertically from female to offspring. This bacterium is found within a red-pigmented bacteriome within the host. The bacteria-insect relationship is one of nutritional co-dependence: the bacteria provide important metabolites for the insect's nutritional requirements, and in turn receive a safe environment and metabolites from the insect.
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General Information: This strain (HS; serotype O9) is a human commensal that was originally isolated from a laboratory scientist at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in 1978 (Levine, 1978). Strain HS colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract in challenge experiments, but no overt signs of disease occur. Thus, this strain represents a genomic baseline for human gastrointestinal tract colonization. This organism was named for its discoverer, Theodore Escherich, and is one of the premier model organisms used in the study of bacterial genetics, physiology, and biochemistry. This enteric organism is typically present in the lower intestine of humans, where it is the dominant facultative anaerobe present, but it is only one minor constituent of the complete intestinal microflora. E. coli, is capable of causing various diseases in its host, especially when they acquire virulence traits. E. coli can cause urinary tract infections, neonatal meningitis, and many different intestinal diseases, usually by attaching to the host cell and introducing toxins that disrupt normal cellular processes.