Query: NC_007948:3541987 Polaromonas sp. JS666, complete genome Lineage: Polaromonas; Polaromonas; Comamonadaceae; Burkholderiales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: This strain was isolated from sediment contaminated with cis-dichloroethane (cDCE), a common pollutant resulting from widespread manufacture and use of industrial solvents. This bacterium is the only known organism capable of using cDCE as a sole carbon and energy source. The ability of this strain to convert ethene to epoxyethane suggests that the first step in the cDCE biodegradation pathway is the oxidation of cDCE to an epoxide compound. Bacteria that are able to grow on cDCE are rare, and have only been found in very few highly selective artificial environments. The discovery of this bacteria may provide a low cost, self-sustaining bioremediation method in areas where cDCE is a problem contaminant.
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General Information: This organism was first isolated from the soil in Vineland, New Jersey, although it is found worldwide. It is a large obligate aerobe that has one of the highest respiratory rates of any organism. Azotobacter vinelandii also produces a number of unusual nitrogenases which allow it to fix atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia, a compound it can then use as a nitrogen source. It protects the oxygen-sensitive nitrogenase enzymes through its high respiratory rate, which sequesters the nitrogenase complexes in an anoxic environment. This organism has a number of unusual characteristics. Under extreme environmental conditions, the cell will produce a cyst that is resistant to dessication and is surrounded by two capsular polysaccharide layers. This organism produces two industrially important polysaccharides, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and alginate. PHB is a thermoplastic biopolymer, and alginate is used in the food industry. Alginate is also used by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to infect the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients.