Query: NC_006677:1596560 Gluconobacter oxydans 621H, complete genome Lineage: Gluconobacter oxydans; Gluconobacter; Acetobacteraceae; Rhodospirillales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: Industrially useful bacterium. Gluconobacter oxydans is a member of the Acetobacteraceae family within the alpha proteobacteria and can be isolated from flowers, fruits, and fermented beverages. This organism uses membrane-associated dehydrogenases to incompletely oxidize a wide variety of carbohydrates and alcohols. Oxidation occurs in the periplasm with the products being released into the medium via outer membrane porins and the electrons entering the electron transport chain. Able to oxidize large amounts of substrates, making it useful for industrial purposes. Among other applications, it has been used to produce 2-ketogluconic for iso-ascorbic acid production, 5-ketogluconic acid from glucose for tartaric acid production, and L-sorbose from sorbitol for vitamin C synthesis.
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General Information: Bartonella henselae str. Houston-1 (ATCC 49882) was isolated from human blood in Houston Texas. Causative agent of cat scratch fever. This group of alpha proteobacteria are unique among pathogens in that they cause angiogenic lesions. This organism was identified as the causative agent of cat scratch fever, a disease found commonly in children or in immunocompromised adults. The proliferation of the vascular endothelium (bacillary angiomatosis) is characterisitic of Bartonella infection and results in multiplication of the bacterium's host cells. Infected macrophages are stimulated to release vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin 1 beta, both of which promote angiogenesis. Endothelial cells are also stimulated to grow and divide by direct contact with bacterial cells. In addition, programmed cell death (apoptosis) of endothelial cells is inhibited, combatting a common mechanism eukaryotic cells use to deal with bacterial infection. Other pathogenicity factors include pili and outer membrane adhesins for attachment to host cells.