Query: NC_006510:3321426 Geobacillus kaustophilus HTA426, complete genome Lineage: Geobacillus kaustophilus; Geobacillus; Bacillaceae; Bacillales; Firmicutes; Bacteria General Information: Geobacillus kaustophilus strain HTA426 was first isolated from deep sea sediment of the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean and belongs to a closely related group of thermophilic Bacillus spp. Members of this genus were originally classified as Bacillus. Recent rDNA analysis and DNA-DNA hybridization studies using spore-forming thermophilic subsurface isolates provided enough evidence to define the phylogenetically distinct, physiologically and morphologically consistent taxon Geobacillus. Geobacillus species are chemo-organotrophic, obligately thermophilic, motile, spore-forming, aerobic or facultatively anaerobic. This organism was compared with mesophilic Bacillus spp. to identify genome characteristics and specific genes related to thermophilia. Analysis of the amino acid compositions showed clear differences between Geobacillus kaustophilus and the mesophilic bacilli. In addition, the higher G+C content in Geobacillus kaustophilus rRNA also appears correlated to thermophilia. In addition, tRNA modification by the Geobacillus kaustophilus specific tRNA methyltransferases probably aids in the thermoadaptation of this organism.
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General Information: This organism was isolated from a case of severe human tissue necrosis which is unusual since human infections by this organism are rare. Produces insect toxinT his organism, also known as BT, is famous for the production of an insecticidal toxin. The bacterium was initially discovered as a pathogen of various insects and was first used as an insecticidal agent in the early part of this century. This organism, like many other Bacilli, is found in the soil, where it leads a saprophytic existence, but becomes an opportunistic pathogen of insects when ingested. The specific activity of the toxin towards insects and its lack of toxicity to animals has made this organism a useful biocontrol agent. The delta-endotoxin, which is produced during the sporulation part of the life cycle, causes midgut paralysis and disruption of feeding by the infected insect host. The delta-endotoxin, which is produced during the sporulation part of the life cycle, causes midgut paralysis and disruption of feeding by the infected insect host. The delta-endotoxin, which is produced during the sporulation part of the life cycle, causes midgut paralysis and disruption of feeding by the infected insect host. The presence of a parasporal crystal, which is outside the exosporium of the endospore, is indicative of production of the toxin, and serves as a marker for this species.Activation of the toxin typically requires a high pH environment such as the alkaline environments in insect midguts followed by proteolysis. Various toxin genes specific for a variety of insects have been studied, and many are now being used in genetically modified plants which have been engineered to produce the toxin themselves, eliminating the need to produce sufficient amounts of B. thuringiensis spores.