Query: NC_004669:24672 Enterococcus faecalis V583 plasmid pTEF1, complete sequence Lineage: Enterococcus faecalis; Enterococcus; Enterococcaceae; Lactobacillales; Firmicutes; Bacteria General Information: This strain is one of the first vancomycin-resistant strains isolated. This isolate came from a blood culture derived from a chronically-infected patient in 1987 from Barnes Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri, USA. This strain was found to lack the cytolysin gene and a surface adhesin, Esp, that contributes to urinary tract infections. Mobile genetic elements make up one quarter of the genome. This genera consists of organisms typically found in the intestines of mammals, although through fecal contamination they can appear in sewage, soil, and water. They cause a number of infections that are becoming increasingly a problem due to the number of antibiotic resistance mechanisms these organisms have picked up. Both Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium cause similar diseases in humans, and are mainly distinguished by their metabolic capabilities. This opportunistic pathogen can cause urinary tract infections, bacteremia (bacteria in the blood), and infective endocarditis (inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart), similar to infections caused by Enterococcus faecium. Hospital-acquired infections from this organism are on the rise due to the emergence of antiobiotic resistance strains. Enterococcus faecalis produces a cytolysin toxin that is encoded on various mobile genetic elements, pathogenicity islands, and conjugative plasmids. The cytolysin aids in pathogenesis, possibly by causing destruction of cells such as erythrocytes, which allows access to new nutrients for the organism.
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General Information: Lactobacillus salivarius salivarius strain UCC118 was isolated from the human gastrointestinal tract. This organism produces bacteriocins, antibiotic compounds which have inhibitory effects on pathogenic microorganisms. Lactobacillus salivarius subsp. salivarius strain UCC118 has been extensively studied for its effectiveness as a probiotic to maintain the balance of the gut microbial flora and stimulate the intestinal immune system. Oral and gastrointestinal tract bacterium. They are commonly found in the oral, vaginal, and intestinal regions of many animals. They are important industrial microbes that contribute to the production of cheese, yogurt, and other products such as fermented milks, all stemming from the production of lactic acid, which inhibits the growth of other organisms as well as lowering the pH of the food product. Industrial production requires the use of starter cultures, which are carefully cultivated, created, and maintained, which produce specific end products during fermentation that impart flavor to the final product, as well as contributing important metabolic reactions, such as the breakdown of milk proteins during cheese production. The end product of fermentation, lactic acid, is also being used as a starter molecule for complex organic molecule syntheses. Lactobacillus salivarius was first isolated as part of a survey of human oral lactobacilli and is commonly found in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract of humans and other animals.