Query: NC_020389:2439067 Methanosarcina mazei Tuc01, complete genome Lineage: Methanosarcina mazei; Methanosarcina; Methanosarcinaceae; Methanosarcinales; Euryarchaeota; Archaea General Information: This organism is a strictly anaerobic, non-motile, methane-producing archaeon. This organism can also aggregate forming large irregular shaped clumps of cells. Occasionally these aggregates can grow to 1000 microns or more in diameter. Growth occurs at pH 5.5-8.0, with optimum growth at pH 6.8-7.2. Growth occurs at pH 5.5-8.0, with optimum growth at pH 6.8-7.2. Can be found in decaying leaf litter, garden soil, sewage treatment sludge digestors, black mud, feces of herbivores and other urban waste and sewage products.
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General Information: This strain was isolated in 1984 from a patient in Beijing, China. It is similar to pathogenic Escherichia coli except for the more numerous insertion sequences and contains a virulence plasmid (pCP301). Causes enteric disease. Shigella This genus is named for the Japanese scientist (Shiga) who discovered them in the 1890s. They are closely related to the Escherichia group, and may be considered the same species. are human-specific pathogens that are transmitted via contaminated food and water and are the leading causes of endemic bacillary dysentery, and over 1 million deaths worldwide are attributed to them. The bacteria infect the epithelial lining of the colon, causing acute inflammation by entering the host cell cytoplasm and spreading intercellularly. are extremely virulent organisms that require very few cells in order to cause disease. Both the type III secretion system, which delivers effector molecules into the host cell, and some of the translocated effectors such as the invasion plasmid antigens (Ipas), are encoded on the plasmid. The bacterium produces a surface protein that localizes to one pole of the cell (IcsA) which binds to and promotes actin polymerization, resulting in movement of the bacterium through the cell cytoplasm, and eventually to neighboring cells, which results in inflammatory destruction of the mucosal lining. This organism, along with Shigella sonnei, is the major cause of shigellosis in industrialized countries and is responsible for endemic infections.