Query: NC_016622:82418 Azospirillum lipoferum 4B, complete genome Lineage: Azospirillum lipoferum; Azospirillum; Rhodospirillaceae; Rhodospirillales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: Azospirillum is a bacteria belonging to the order Rhodospirillales, associated with roots of monocots, including important crops, such as wheat, corn and rice. Azospirillum is the primary commercial phytostimulator inoculant for cereals worldwide. Azospirillum lipoferum 4B has been isolated from a rice field of Camargue (South of France) in 1982 and has been studied for its high efficiency in nitrogen fixation and for its successful properties of rice colonization and growth promotion.
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General Information: This organism was first isolated from the soil in Vineland, New Jersey, although it is found worldwide. It is a large obligate aerobe that has one of the highest respiratory rates of any organism. Azotobacter vinelandii also produces a number of unusual nitrogenases which allow it to fix atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia, a compound it can then use as a nitrogen source. It protects the oxygen-sensitive nitrogenase enzymes through its high respiratory rate, which sequesters the nitrogenase complexes in an anoxic environment. This organism has a number of unusual characteristics. Under extreme environmental conditions, the cell will produce a cyst that is resistant to dessication and is surrounded by two capsular polysaccharide layers. This organism produces two industrially important polysaccharides, poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) and alginate. PHB is a thermoplastic biopolymer, and alginate is used in the food industry. Alginate is also used by the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa to infect the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients.