Query: NC_014909:121771 Candidatus Blochmannia vafer str. BVAF chromosome, complete genome Lineage: Blochmannia vafer; Blochmannia; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: Candidatus Blochmannia is an obligate bacterial associate of Camponotus and related ant genera. Blochmannia vafer was isolated from Camponotus vafer workers and larvae collected from a single colony in the Coronado National Forest near Portal, Arizona, USA. Blochmannia is located within bacteriocytes, where the bacterial cells float freely in the host cytoplasm, and within oocytes of queens.
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General Information: This strain is found in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.Aphid endosymbiont. Almost all aphids contain maternally transmitted bacteriocyte cells, which themselves contain bacteria called Buchnera. The aphids live on a restricted diet (plant sap), rich in carbohydrates, but poor in nitrogenous or other essential compounds. It is believed that the Buchnera provide the essential nutrients the host lacks. Besides a nutritional co-dependence, due to a co-existence of millions of years, Buchnera have lost the ability to produce cell surface components such as lipopolysaccharides. This makes for an obligate endosymbiont relationship between host and Buchnera. Buchnera are prokaryotic cells which belong to the gamma-Proteobacteria, closely related to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Phylogenetic studies using 16S rRNA indicate that the symbiotic relationship was established around 200-250 million years ago. Since Buchnera are closely related to Escherichia coli and Haemophilus influenzae, comparative genomic studies can shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms of intracellular endosymbiosis as well as the different underlying molecular basis between organisms with parasitic behavior and symbionts.