Query: NC_014802:441000 Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni ICDCCJ07001 chromosome, complete Lineage: Campylobacter jejuni; Campylobacter; Campylobacteraceae; Campylobacterales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: Gram-negative, microaerophilic, flagellate, spiral bacterium, Campylobacter species are the leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis in developed countries. Infection with C. jejuni is the most frequent antecedent to a form of neuromuscular paralysis known as Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). Strain ICDCCJ07001 was isolated following a GBS outbreak in Shuangyang, a town in northern China in 2007, from a severely affected 15 year-old girl GBS patient who had been on a ventilator for 180 days. Her clinical symptoms were motor axonal neuropathy. This organism is the leading cause of bacterial food poisoning (campylobacteriosis) in the world, and is more prevalent than Salmonella enteritis (salmonellosis). Found throughout nature, it can colonize the intestines of both mammals and birds, and transmission to humans occurs via contaminated food products. This organism can invade the epithelial layer by first attaching to epithelial cells, then penetrating through them. Systemic infections can also occur causing more severe illnesses.
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General Information: This strain was isolated in the USA from the soft tick Ornithodoros turicatae. Borrelia turicatae is the causative agent of tick-borne relapsing fever in the southwestern USA. Ticks become infected with Borrelia while feeding on an infected mammal, usually a rodent or squirrel. Borrelia then multiplies rapidly, causing a generalized infection throughout the tick. While feeding, the tick passes the spirochete into a mammalian host through its infectious saliva. Relapsing fever is characterized by period of chills, fever, headache, and malaise, followed by an asymptomatic, followed by another episode of symptoms. The cycle of relapsing is due to changes in the surface proteins of Borrelia, which allow it to avoid detection and removal by the host immune system. This antigenic variation is the result of homologous recombination of silent proteins into an expressed locus, causing partial or complete replacement of one serotype with another. These plasmids carry genes involved in antigenic variation and pathogenicity.