Query: NC_014654:1529500 Halanaerobium sp. 'sapolanicus' chromosome, complete genome Lineage: Halanaerobium hydrogeniformans; Halanaerobium; Halanaerobiaceae; Halanaerobiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria General Information: Environment: Fresh water, Sediment; Temp: Mesophile; Temp: 34 - 42C. Organisms identified in the genus Halanaerobium (also known as Haloanaerobium) were first isolated from the Great Salt Lake in Utah, USA and have since been isolated from diverse saline environments such as oil reserviors, brine-seawater interfaces and hypersaline sediments. These bacteria are extremely salt-tolerant and are able to grow in concentrations of salt as high as 25%.
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General Information: This strain was isolated from stool samples from an outbreak that involved three individuals in Nebraska, USA 1996. This organism is a soil-dwelling opportunistic pathogen that causes food poisoning in infected individuals. The rapid onset is characterized by nausea and vomiting while the late onset is characterized by diarrhea and abdominal pain. The emetic disease is caused by a small stable dodecadepsipeptide cerulide whereas the diarrheal disease is caused by a heat labile enterotoxin. Some strains produce a potent cytotoxin that forms a pore in the membrane of eukaryotic cells and causes necrotic enteritis (death of intestinal epithelial cells) while the unique tripartite membrane lytic toxin hemolysin BL contributes to the diarrheal disease and destructive infections of the eye.