Query: NC_012962:4427000 Photorhabdus asymbiotica, complete genome Lineage: Photorhabdus asymbiotica; Photorhabdus; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: This strain is a North American clinical isolate from human blood. Photorhabdus asymbiota, formerly Xenorhabdus luminescens, has been isolated from human wound and blood infections often in association with spider bites. This species can also be isolated from the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis indica. Photorhabdus asymbiota is divided into two subspecies, subsp. australis which contains the Australian clinical isolates and subsp. asymbiota which contains the North American isolates. Photorhabdus is currently subdivided into three species, luminescens, temperate and asymbiotica all of which have been isolated as symbionts of heterorhabditid nematodes. This organism is unusual in that it is symbiotic within one insect, and pathogenic in another, the only organism that is known to exhibit this dual phenotype.
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General Information: This strain was isolated on Trinidad and Tobago. It is a symbiont of the nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. Bioluminescent bacterium. This organism is unusual in that it is symbiotic within one insect, and pathogenic in another, the only organism that is known to exhibit this dual phenotype. Enzymes are then released by the bacteria that result in rapid degradation of the insect body, allowing both bacteria and nematode to feed and reproduce. During this period Photorhabdus luminescens releases bacteriocidal products, including antibiotics and bacteriocins, that prevent infection of the larva by competitive microbes. The result is promotion of Photorhabdus luminescens-nematode interactions that result in continuation of the symbiotic relationship. In order to engage in a symbiotic relationship with the nematode and a pathogenic one with the insect larva, the bacterium encodes specific factors that encourage both. These include a large number of genes that code for secreted toxins and enzymes, as well as genes that encode products for the production of antibiotics and bacteriocins. Secretion of these products occurs by an array of systems including type I, type II, and type III secretion systems. The type III system is closely related to the Yersinia plasmid-encoded type III system. Genes that promote symbiotic relationships are also encoded on genomic islands on the chromosome including some that affect nematode development. Virulence genes appear to be active during exponential growth. Symbiotic genes appear to function during stationary phase (post-exponential) growth. The switch from one state to another is controlled. Photorhabdus luminescens is capable of giving off light, a complex process that requires the products of the lux operon.