General Information: This strain was isolated from an infected infant in Germany in 1993. Causes respiratory illness in humans and sheep. This group of organisms is capable of invading the respiratory tract of animals and causing severe diseases. They express a number of virulence factors in order to do this including filamentous hemagglutins for attachment, cytotoxins, and proteins that form a type III secretion system for transport of effector molecules into host cells. Bordetella parapertussis can infect humans and sheep and it is unable to persist in the environment. This organism causes a respiratory disease similar to, but less severe than, Bordetella pertussis in humans and a chronic pneumonia in sheep.