Query: NC_012668:2744393 Vibrio cholerae MJ-1236 chromosome 1, complete sequence Lineage: Vibrio cholerae; Vibrio; Vibrionaceae; Vibrionales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: Vibrio cholerae MJ-1236 is a toxigenic O1 El Tor Inaba strain from Matlab, Bangladesh, 1994 that represents the "Matlab variant" of El Tor. This genus is abundant in marine or freshwater environments such as estuaries, brackish ponds, or coastal areas; regions that provide an important reservoir for the organism in between outbreaks of the disease. Vibrio can affect shellfish, finfish, and other marine animals and a number of species are pathogenic for humans. Vibrio cholerae can colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestines of humans where it will cause cholera, a severe and sudden onset diarrheal disease. One famous outbreak was traced to a contaminated well in London in 1854 by John Snow, and epidemics, which can occur with extreme rapidity, are often associated with conditions of poor sanitation. The disease has a high lethality if left untreated, and millions have died over the centuries. There have been seven major pandemics between 1817 and today. Six were attributed to the classical biotype, while the 7th, which started in 1961, is associated with the El Tor biotype.
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General Information: This strain (ATCC BAA-672) is a virulent blackleg isolated from the stem of a potato plant. Causative agent for blackleg and soft rot disease in potatoes. Formerly Erwinia, these organisms are plant-specific pathogens that invade the vascular systems of plants. Both Pectobacterium chrysanthemia and Pectobacterium carotovora cause soft-rot diseases of various plant hosts through degradation of the plant cell walls. Pectobacterium colonize the intercellular spaces of plant cells and deliver potent effector molecules (Avr - avirulence) through a type III secretion system (Hrp - hypersensitive response and pathogenicity). Avr proteins control host-bacterium interactions, including host range. Expression of the plant cell-wall-degrading enzymes is controlled through a quorum-sensing mechanism that quantifies the number of Pectobacterium bacteria through measurement of the concentration of small molecules (acyl homoserine lactones) produced by Pectobacterium. Pectobacterium atrosepticum is an environmentally widespread organism that causes blackleg and soft rot disease in potatoes. This organism produces pectolytic enzymes that destroy plant tissue and allow the bacteria to spread.