Query: NC_012416:852000 Wolbachia sp. wRi, complete genome Lineage: Wolbachia; Wolbachia; Anaplasmataceae; Rickettsiales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: Endosymbiont. Obligate intracellular bacterium infects around 20% of all insect species. Naturally infects Drosophila simulans and induces almost complete cytoplasmic incompatibility in its host. Wolbachia sp. subsp. Drosophila simulans (strain wRi) is an intracellular proteobacterium that infect insects as well as isopods, spiders, scorpions, mites, and filarial nematodes. It is maternally inherited and induces reproductive alterations of insect populations by male killing, feminization, parthenogenesis, or cytoplasmic incompatibility. In insect populations, Wolbachia sp. induce reproductive manipulations to enhance their own spreading. The most frequently observed reproductive abnormality is cytoplasmic incompatibility, where uninfected females are unable to produce offspring with infected males, whereas infected females can produce offspring with both infected and uninfected males, thus creating a reproductive advantage for infected females. Other spectacular effects of Wolbachia sp. infections are male embryo killing, feminization, and parthenogenesis induction.
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General Information: Causes bovine brucellosis. They are highly infectious, and can be spread through contact with infected animal products or through the air, making them a potential bioterrorism agent. Once the organism has entered the body, it can become intracellular, and enter the blood and lymphatic regions, multiplying inside phagocytes before eventually causing bacteremia (spread of bacteria through the blood). Once the organism has entered the body, it can become intracellular, and enter the blood and lymphatic regions, multiplying inside phagocytes before eventually causing bacteremia (spread of bacteria through the blood). Virulence may depend on a type IV secretion system which may promote intracellular growth by secreting important effector molecules. This organism was first noticed on the island of Malta by Dr. David Bruce during an epidemic among British soldiers. It is the primary cause of bovine brucellosis, which results in enormous (billions of dollars) economic losses due primarily to reproductive failure and food losses. In man, it causes undulant fever, a long debilitating disease that is treated by protracted administration of antibiotics.