Query: NC_011745:3197584 Escherichia coli ED1a chromosome, complete genome Lineage: Escherichia coli; Escherichia; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: Isolated in the 2000s from the faeces of a healthy man in France. This organism was named for its discoverer, Theodore Escherich, and is one of the premier model organisms used in the study of bacterial genetics, physiology, and biochemistry. This enteric organism is typically present in the lower intestine of humans, where it is the dominant facultative anaerobe present, but it is only one minor constituent of the complete intestinal microflora. E. coli, is capable of causing various diseases in its host, especially when they acquire virulence traits. E. coli can cause urinary tract infections, neonatal meningitis, and many different intestinal diseases, usually by attaching to the host cell and introducing toxins that disrupt normal cellular processes.
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General Information: Causes bovine brucellosis. They may be found as members of the normal microflora of humans, where these bacteria find a suitable niche in virtually every anatomic site. This organism is a well-studied soil bacterium of considerable importance in biotechnology, in particular for the fermentative production of L-amino acids for food and fodder industry. The name was originaly given for this species for its ability to produce significant quantities (>100 g per liter) of glutamic acid (glutamate), an important food enhancer that has a meaty taste and flavor. Currently used commercially to produce glutamate and other amino acids (L-lysine) and compounds. The first strain of the species was isolated in 1957 by S. Kinoshita and colleagues while searching for an efficient glutamate-producer.