Query: NC_011094:1050700 Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Schwarzengrund str Lineage: Salmonella enterica; Salmonella; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: This serovar is the predominant cause of Salmonellosis in Southeast Asia, a major source of imported food products to the USA. It was also the cause of the first recognized outbreak of fluoroquinolone-resistant salmonellosis in the USA. Recent reports suggest that high-level fluoroquinolone resistance is emerging in S. Schwarzengrund in different parts of the world. This group of Enterobactericiae have pathogenic characteristics and are one of the most common causes of enteric infections (food poisoning) worldwide. They were named after the scientist Dr. Daniel Salmon who isolated the first organism, Salmonella choleraesuis, from the intestine of a pig. The presence of several pathogenicity islands (PAIs) that encode various virulence factors allows Salmonella spp. to colonize and infect host organisms. There are two important PAIs, Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) that encode two different type III secretion systems for the delivery of effector molecules into the host cell that result in internalization of the bacteria which then leads to systemic spread.
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General Information: This strain (HS; serotype O9) is a human commensal that was originally isolated from a laboratory scientist at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in 1978 (Levine, 1978). Strain HS colonizes the human gastrointestinal tract in challenge experiments, but no overt signs of disease occur. Thus, this strain represents a genomic baseline for human gastrointestinal tract colonization. This organism was named for its discoverer, Theodore Escherich, and is one of the premier model organisms used in the study of bacterial genetics, physiology, and biochemistry. This enteric organism is typically present in the lower intestine of humans, where it is the dominant facultative anaerobe present, but it is only one minor constituent of the complete intestinal microflora. E. coli, is capable of causing various diseases in its host, especially when they acquire virulence traits. E. coli can cause urinary tract infections, neonatal meningitis, and many different intestinal diseases, usually by attaching to the host cell and introducing toxins that disrupt normal cellular processes.