Pre_GI: SWBIT SVG BLASTN

Query: NC_010674:3581044 Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B, complete genome

Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum B str. Eklund 17B is a nonproteolytic botulism neurotoxin B strain. This strain was isolated from marine sediments taken off the coast of Washington, USA and was not associated with botulism. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin.Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium. Honey is the most common vehicle for infection in infants. Food poisoning through C. botulinum is the most frequent type of infection caused by this bacterium. The wound botulism that occurs when C. botulinum infects an individual via an open wound is much rarer and is very similar to tetanus disease. There are several types of botulinum toxin known (type A through type F), all of them being neurotoxic polypeptides. The most common and widely distributed are strains and serovars of C. botulinum that produce type A toxin.

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BLASTN Alignment.txt

Subject: NC_007952:1293024 Burkholderia xenovorans LB400 chromosome 2, complete sequence

Lineage: Burkholderia xenovorans; Burkholderia; Burkholderiaceae; Burkholderiales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria

General Information: Originally identified as Pseudomonas sp. LB400 that was found in contaminated soil in upstate New York, USA, this organism is now classified in the genus Burkholderia. Polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading bacterium. Member of the genus Burkholderia are versatile organisms that occupy a surprisingly wide range of ecological niches. These bacteria are exploited for biocontrol, bioremediation, and plant growth promotion purposes. Burkholderia xenovorans has been found on fungi, animals, and from human clinical isolates such as from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. It may be tightly associated with white-rot fungus, as the degadation of lignin by the fungus results in aromatic compounds the bacterium can then degrade. This organism is exceptionally capable of degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are environmental pollutants, and thus it may play a role in bioremediation of polluted and toxic sites and is studied as a model bioremediator. PCBs can be utilized as the sole carbon and energy source by this organism. The pathways for degradation of PCBs have been extensively characterized at both the genetic and the molecular level and have become a model system for the bacterial breakdown of these very persistent environmental contaminants.