Query: NC_010519:1802294 Haemophilus somnus 2336 chromosome, complete genome Lineage: Histophilus somni; Histophilus; Pasteurellaceae; Pasteurellales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: This strain was isolated from the lung of a calf which had pneumonia. A group of organisms that are either obligate parasites or commensal organisms found in animal mucous membranes. Almost all species require the presence of important growth factors found in the blood of their hosts, including either X factor (protoporphyrin IX or heme) or V factor (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD or NADP)). This organism is a major cause of disease in feedlot cattle. It causes constriction of blood vessels supplying major organs, restricting blood supply which leads to reduced oxygen delivery, and leads to tissue damage and death. The diseases that result are pneumonia, arthritis, myocarditis (inflammation of heart muscle), and reproductive problems resulting in the loss of millions of dollars in animals each year.
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General Information: This is an epidemic serogroup of Vibrio cholerae isolated in 1971 in Bangladesh and is distinguished from the classical biotype due to hemolysin production. This genus is abundant in marine or freshwater environments such as estuaries, brackish ponds, or coastal areas; regions that provide an important reservoir for the organism in between outbreaks of the disease. Vibrio can affect shellfish, finfish, and other marine animals and a number of species are pathogenic for humans. Vibrio cholerae can colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestines of humans where it will cause cholera, a severe and sudden onset diarrheal disease. One famous outbreak was traced to a contaminated well in London in 1854 by John Snow, and epidemics, which can occur with extreme rapidity, are often associated with conditions of poor sanitation. The disease has a high lethality if left untreated, and millions have died over the centuries. There have been seven major pandemics between 1817 and today. Six were attributed to the classical biotype, while the 7th, which started in 1961, is associated with the El Tor biotype.