Query: NC_010337:2848360 Heliobacterium modesticaldum Ice1, complete genome Lineage: Heliobacterium modesticaldum; Heliobacterium; Heliobacteriaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria General Information: Heliobacterium modesticaldum strain Ice1, the type strain of this species, was isolated from Icelandic hot spring volcanic soils. It grows optimally above 50 degrees Celsius, grows best photoheterotrophically, but can grow in the dark chemotrophically on pyruvate. Phototrophic thermophile. This organism is an anoxygenic phototroph isolated from hot spring microbial mats and volcanic soil. Cell wall structure, the ability to form endospores, and 16S ribosomal RNA analysis place Heliobacterium modesticaldum in a family of phototrophic bacteria related to the Clostridia. Heliobacterium modesticaldum is able to fix nitrogen and may contribute significantly to the nitrogen availability in microbial mats.
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General Information: A non-ruminal mesophilic cellulolytic bacterium originally isolated from decayed grass compost. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. Clostridium cellulolyticum is a mesophilic cellulolytic bacterium. Cellulose-degradation by C. cellulolyticum has been extensively studied. The cellulolytic enzymes of this organism are bound to a protein scaffold in an extracellular multienzyme complex called a cellulosome.