Query: NC_009802:647901 Campylobacter concisus 13826, complete genome Lineage: Campylobacter concisus; Campylobacter; Campylobacteraceae; Campylobacterales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: Campylobacter concisus 13826 is a gastrointestinal clinical isolate. Members of this genus are one of the most common causes of bacterial gastroenteritis (campylobacteriosis). Usually the symptoms are abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea, and cramps, but the illness can sometimes be fatal and some infected individuals develop a syndrome (Guillain-Barre) in which the nerves connecting the spinal cord to the brain are damaged. C. jejuni is the main cause of campylobacteriosis, but other species can also cause infection, including C. coli, C. upsaliensis, and C. concisus. Campylobacter concisus was first isolated from the human oral cavity in cases of gingivitis; however the role it plays in periodontal disease is unclear. This organism has also been isolated from children and immunocompromised patients with gastrointestinal disease. C. concisus is a genetically diverse species, comprised of at least four genomospecies.
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General Information: This strain is one of the first vancomycin-resistant strains isolated. This isolate came from a blood culture derived from a chronically-infected patient in 1987 from Barnes Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri, USA. This strain was found to lack the cytolysin gene and a surface adhesin, Esp, that contributes to urinary tract infections. Mobile genetic elements make up one quarter of the genome. This genera consists of organisms typically found in the intestines of mammals, although through fecal contamination they can appear in sewage, soil, and water. They cause a number of infections that are becoming increasingly a problem due to the number of antibiotic resistance mechanisms these organisms have picked up. Both Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium cause similar diseases in humans, and are mainly distinguished by their metabolic capabilities. This opportunistic pathogen can cause urinary tract infections, bacteremia (bacteria in the blood), and infective endocarditis (inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart), similar to infections caused by Enterococcus faecium. Hospital-acquired infections from this organism are on the rise due to the emergence of antiobiotic resistance strains. Enterococcus faecalis produces a cytolysin toxin that is encoded on various mobile genetic elements, pathogenicity islands, and conjugative plasmids. The cytolysin aids in pathogenesis, possibly by causing destruction of cells such as erythrocytes, which allows access to new nutrients for the organism.