Pre_GI: SWBIT SVG BLASTN

Query: NC_009697:3711692 Clostridium botulinum A str. ATCC 19397 chromosome, complete

Lineage: Clostridium botulinum; Clostridium; Clostridiaceae; Clostridiales; Firmicutes; Bacteria

General Information: Clostridium botulinum A ATCC 19397 (NCTC 4587, NCTC 7272) is a stock, type A toxin-producing, laboratory strain of known toxicity. Produces botulinum, one of the most potent toxins known. This genus comprises about 150 metabolically diverse species of anaerobes that are ubiquitous in virtually all anoxic habitats where organic compounds are present, including soils, aquatic sediments and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. This shape is attributed to the presence of endospores that develop under conditions unfavorable for vegetative growth and distend single cells terminally or sub-terminally. Spores germinate under conditions favorable for vegetative growth, such as anaerobiosis and presence of organic substrates. It is believed that present day Mollicutes (Eubacteria) have evolved regressively (i.e., by genome reduction) from gram-positive clostridia-like ancestors with a low GC content in DNA. This organism produces one of the most potent and deadly neurotoxins known, a botulinum toxin that prevents the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction, thereby inhibiting muscle contraction and causing paralysis. In most cases the diseased person dies of asphyxiation as a result of paralysis of chest muscles involved in breathing. The spores are heat-resistant and can survive in inadequately heated, prepared, or processed foods. Spores germinate under favorable conditions (anaerobiosis and substrate-rich environment) and bacteria start propagating very rapidly, producing the toxin. Botulinum toxin, and C. botulinum cells, has been found in a wide variety of foods, including canned ones. Almost any food that has a high pH (above 4.6) can support growth of the bacterium.

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BLASTN Alignment.txt

Subject: NC_007426:205390 Natronomonas pharaonis DSM 2160, complete genome

Lineage: Natronomonas pharaonis; Natronomonas; Halobacteriaceae; Halobacteriales; Euryarchaeota; Archaea

General Information: Isolated from Lake Gabara in Egypt. Extreme haloalkaliphilic archeon. Natronomonas pharaonis is able to survive at high salt and pH conditions which results in limited nitrogen availability through ammonium. In order to compensate for this, Natronomonas pharaonis has developed three systems to promote nitrogen assimilation: direct uptake of ammonia, uptake of nitrate, and uptake of urea. Another problem with high pH environments is the use of a proton gradient for the generation of ATP, which other alkaliphiles have adapted to by substitution of sodium ions for protons. However, this organism utilizes protons for ATP generation as determined by experimental data.