Query: NC_009381:1783886 Yersinia pestis Pestoides F chromosome, complete genome Lineage: Yersinia pestis; Yersinia; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: Atypical strain isolated from the former Soviet Union, USSR. This strain lacks a plasminogen activator and is virulent by the aerosol route. Specific virulence factors are encoded within pathogenicity islands (PAIs) that are required for the invasive phenotype associated with Yersinia infections. One key virulence plasmid contained by the three human-specific pathogens is pCD1/pYv, which encodes a type III secretion system for the delivery of virulence proteins that contribute to internalization into the host cell. It is the causative agent of plague (bubonic and pulmonary) a devastating disease which has killed millions worldwide. The organism can be transmitted from rats to humans through the bite of an infected flea or from human-to-human through the air during widespread infection. Yersinia pestis is an extremely pathogenic organism that requires very few numbers in order to cause disease, and is often lethal if left untreated. The organism is enteroinvasive, and can survive and propagate in macrophages prior to spreading systemically throughout the host. Yersinia pestis also contains a PAI on the chromosome that is similar to the SPI-2 PAI from Salmonella that allows intracellular survival in the organism.
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General Information: This strain is one of the first vancomycin-resistant strains isolated. This isolate came from a blood culture derived from a chronically-infected patient in 1987 from Barnes Hospital in St. Louis, Missouri, USA. This strain was found to lack the cytolysin gene and a surface adhesin, Esp, that contributes to urinary tract infections. Mobile genetic elements make up one quarter of the genome. This genera consists of organisms typically found in the intestines of mammals, although through fecal contamination they can appear in sewage, soil, and water. They cause a number of infections that are becoming increasingly a problem due to the number of antibiotic resistance mechanisms these organisms have picked up. Both Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium cause similar diseases in humans, and are mainly distinguished by their metabolic capabilities. This opportunistic pathogen can cause urinary tract infections, bacteremia (bacteria in the blood), and infective endocarditis (inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart), similar to infections caused by Enterococcus faecium. Hospital-acquired infections from this organism are on the rise due to the emergence of antiobiotic resistance strains. Enterococcus faecalis produces a cytolysin toxin that is encoded on various mobile genetic elements, pathogenicity islands, and conjugative plasmids. The cytolysin aids in pathogenesis, possibly by causing destruction of cells such as erythrocytes, which allows access to new nutrients for the organism.