Query: NC_008258:1076922 Shigella flexneri 5 str. 8401, complete genome Lineage: Shigella flexneri; Shigella; Enterobacteriaceae; Enterobacteriales; Proteobacteria; Bacteria General Information: This genus is named for the Japanese scientist (Shiga) who discovered them in the 1890s. They are closely related to the Escherichia group, and may be considered the same species. Shigella spp. are human-specific pathogens that are transmitted via contaminated food and water and are the leading causes of endemic bacillary dysentery, and over 1 million deaths worldwide are attributed to them. The bacteria infect the epithelial lining of the colon, causing acute inflammation by entering the host cell cytoplasm and spreading intercellularly. are extremely virulent organisms that require very few cells in order to cause disease. Both the type III secretion system, which delivers effector molecules into the host cell, and some of the translocated effectors such as the invasion plasmid antigens (Ipas), are encoded on the plasmid. The bacterium produces a surface protein that localizes to one pole of the cell (IcsA) which binds to and promotes actin polymerization, resulting in movement of the bacterium through the cell cytoplasm, and eventually to neighboring cells, which results in inflammatory destruction of the mucosal lining. This organism, along with Shigella sonnei, is the major cause of shigellosis in industrialized countries and is responsible for endemic infections.
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General Information: The SL254 strain is an MDR strain from one of two distinct lineages of the Newport serovar. Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport is common worldwide. Outbreak investigations and targeted studies have identified dairy cattle as the main reservoir this serotype. Antimicrobial resistance (Newport MDR-AmpC) is particularly problematic in this serotype, and the prevalence of Newport MDR-AmpC isolates from humans in the United States has increased from 0% during 1996-1997 to 26% in 2001. MDR strains have been recorded as resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphonamides and tetracycline (ACSSuT) and many of these strains show intermediate or full resistance to third-generation cephalosporins, kanamycin, potentiated sulphonamides, and gentamicin. This group of Enterobactericiae have pathogenic characteristics and are one of the most common causes of enteric infections (food poisoning) worldwide. They were named after the scientist Dr. Daniel Salmon who isolated the first organism, Salmonella choleraesuis, from the intestine of a pig. The presence of several pathogenicity islands (PAIs) that encode various virulence factors allows Salmonella spp. to colonize and infect host organisms. There are two important PAIs, Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and SPI-2) that encode two different type III secretion systems for the delivery of effector molecules into the host cell that result in internalization of the bacteria which then leads to systemic spread.